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Basisdokumentation Vitamine und Spurenelemente bei Demenz und Immunschwäche

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J Nutr Health Aging. 2007 May-Jun;11(3):230-7.

Antioxidant intake and cognitive function of elderly men and women: the cache county study.
Wengreen HJ, Munger RG, Corcoran CD, Zandi P, Hayden KM, Fotuhi M, Skoog I, Norton MC, Tschanz J, Breitner JC, Welsh-Bohmer KA. H.J. Wengreen,
Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences and Center for Epidemiologic Research, Utah State University, Logan, UT, 84322-8700. 435 797-1806.

Objective: We prospectively examined associations between intakes of antioxidants (vitamins C, vitamin E, and carotene) and cognitive function and decline among elderly men and women of the Cache County Study on Memory and Aging in Utah. Participants and Design: In 1995, 3831 residents 65 years of age or older completed a baseline survey that included a food frequency questionnaire and cognitive assessment. Cognitive function was assessed using an adapted version of the Modified Mini-Mental State examination (3MS) at baseline and at three subsequent follow-up interviews spanning approximately 7 years. Multivariable-mixed models were used to estimate antioxidant nutrient effects on average 3MS score over time. Results: Increasing quartiles of vitamin C intake alone and combined with vitamin E were associated with higher baseline average 3MS scores (p-trend = 0.013 and 0.02 respectively); this association appeared stronger for food sources compared to supplement or food and supplement sources combined. Study participants with lower levels of intake of vitamin C, vitamin E and carotene had a greater acceleration of the rate of 3MS decline over time compared to those with higher levels of intake. Conclusion: High antioxidant intake from food and supplement sources of vitamin C, vitamin E, and carotene may delay cognitive decline in the elderly.

Nutrition. 2001 Sep;17(9):709-12.
Effect of vitamin and trace-element supplementation on cognitive function in elderly subjects.
Chandra RK. Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, Canada.

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether supplementation with vitamins and trace elements in modest amounts influences cognitive function in apparently healthy, elderly subjects. METHODS: The study was designed as a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Ninety-six, apparently healthy, independent men and women older than 65 y of age were recruited and randomized to receive a supplement of trace elements and vitamins or a placebo daily for 12 mo. Blood-nutrient levels were estimated at baseline and at the end of the study. The major outcome measure assessed was cognitive function consisting of immediate and long-term memory, abstract thinking, problem-solving ability, and attention. RESULTS: Eighty-six subjects completed the 1-y trial. The supplemented group showed a significant improvement in all cognitive tests (P < 0.001 to 0.05) except long-term memory recall (P > 0.1). Those whose blood-nutrient levels were below the reference standard showed lower responses on cognitive tests. There was no significant correlation between individual nutrient levels and performance on various cognitive function tests. CONCLUSIONS: Cognitive functions improved after oral supplementation with modest amounts of vitamins and trace elements. This has considerable clinical and public health significance. We recommend that such a supplement be provided to all elderly subjects because it should significantly improve cognition and thus quality of life and the ability to perform activities of daily living. Such a nutritional approach may delay the onset of Alzheimer's disease.

Lancet. 1992 Nov 7;340(8828):1124-7.
Effect of vitamin and trace-element supplementation on immune responses and infection in elderly subjects.
Chandra RK. Memorial University of Newfoundland.

Ageing is associated with impaired immune responses and increased infection-related morbidity. This study assessed the effect of physiological amounts of vitamins and trace elements on immunocompetence and occurrence of infection-related illness. 96 independently living, healthy elderly individuals were randomly assigned to receive nutrient supplementation or placebo. Nutrient status and immunological variables were assessed at baseline and at 12 months, and the frequency of illness due to infection was ascertained. Subjects in the supplement group had higher numbers of certain T-cell subsets and natural killer cells, enhanced proliferation response to mitogen, increased interleukin-2 production, and higher antibody response and natural killer cell activity. These subjects were less likely than those in the placebo group to have illness due to infections (mean [SD] 23 [5] vs 48 [7] days per year, p = 0.002). Supplementation with a modest physiological amount of micronutrients improves immunity and decreases the risk of infection in old age.